Cairns Urology
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Screening Services
At Cairns Urology we offer a range of highly specialised screening treatments and we’ll assist you in finding the most appropriate for your individual symptoms.

Testing and Screening for prostate Cancer
Early diagnosis of prostate cancer significantly improves the ability to select the most appropriate treatment so the man can live for a good time and a long time.
“Sometimes the best treatment is no treatment.”

Prostate Specific Antigen-PSA Testing
PSA testing means having a blood test taken to see what the PSA levels are. However, this blood test is not conclusive of cancer because there are other conditions which may lead to increased PSA levelsThere are two main types of PSA which are usually used for clinical testing. The PSA which is free within the circulation and that which is bound to protein. If there is abnormal tissue present, there may be an alteration of the free to bound percentage. If the total PSA is greater than 4 and the ratio is less than 10 then this increases the likelihood that a prostate cancer may develop or be present already.
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MRI Screening and Biopsy

An MRI examination involves a patient lying on their back for 20-30 Minutes and receiving an intravenous injection of a contrast material which shows up the prostate.
more on MRI

Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
An ultrasound probe is placed in the back passage to allow a thorough inspection of the prostate gland and any abnormalities.

Prostate Biopsy
A biopsy is the most reliable method of screening for prostate cancer. By taking samples and having them examined under the microscope there can be no doubt about the presence of the cancer providing the suspected tissue has been accurately sampled. Once the presence of a cancer is noted, it can be graded in to various types. This enables appropriate treatment to be planned and give an idea of how serious the situation is.  

If there are no abnormalities seen, the Specialist will instead take around 6 -8 biopsies from the areas in the prostate which are more likely turn into prostate cancer. These areas are selected based on surveys of millions of men who have developed prostate cancer. Some urologists take what is called agreed biopsy. This is 20-30 samples taken under general anaesthetic in hospital. At Cairns Urology we believe that with mpMRI this is a thing of the past and is not necessary.

At Cairns Urology we believe that with mpMRI this is a thing of the past and is not necessary.

MRI Screening and Biopsy

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This procedure is carried out under a general anaesthetic in order to obtain a diagnosis for patients with symptoms such as recurrent infection, pain, bleeding, difficult or frequent urination. A rigid endoscopic instrument is used to thoroughly examine the lower urinary tract, including the bladder and the urethra. The general anaesthetic allows the urologist to remove any polyps found or to stop the bleeding using a similar instrument there and then.
A Cystoscopy is usually a day surgical procedure, and an overnight is not required but may be necessary if further procedures are to be carried out.

Alternatively if it is proposed to carry out a Flexible Cystoscopy, the patient is usually wide awake with no sedation and a local anaesthetic jelly is injected down the urethra in order to reduce sensation. This is done without the use of a needle.

The advantage of Flexible Cystoscopy is that fasting is not needed and sedation or anaesthesia (regional or general) is not needed.